Efficient design and implementation of wireless sensor networks has become a hot area of research in recent years, due to the vast potential of sensor networks to enable applications that connect the physical world to the virtual world. Wireless sensor networks sense and collect data from a certain area, process and transmit them to the sink. If the distance of communication is large, messages are to be propagated through intermediate nodes. The main emphasis of this work is to find out and overcome limitations of the wireless sensor networks such as: limited energy resources, varying energy consumption based on location, high cost of transmission, and limited processing capabilities. The algorithms are mainly based on location, power levels, and load on the node, and their goal is to achieve better target sensing with minimizing the power consumption and maintenance throughout the network so that the majority of the nodes consume their power supply at relatively the same rate regardless of physical location. Different metrics will be used to calculate results employing some fixed iterations, and therefore an optimal solution can be formed throughout the simulation. A number of network topologies may be simulated with a pre defined set of parameters for optimal results. We have simulated some energy efficient protocols namely GRP (Geographic Routing Protocol), TORA (Temporally ordered routing algorithm), AODV (Adhoc on Demand Distance Vector Routing), OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing Protocol) and DREAM (Distance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility) and have analyzed the results on 6(six) various metrics.
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