In any database system query Optimization is an important component. Optimizer designing that takes less time for searching and provides the most optimal query execution plan has been a challenge for DBMS research community in the last decade. The cost of executing a plan depends heavily on selectivity which keeps changing frequently and thusstatic compilation provides an inconsistent performance. Adaptive query optimization is an excellent method of generating optimal plans quite consistently. This paper proposes new hybrid architecture for query optimization which combine features of adaptive query processing and also reduces the search space for re optimization using reduced plan diagrams and cost diagrams. This hybrid architecture is bound to give more efficient performance as compared to any other optimization technique along with increased robustness and a substantial increase in consistency the selection of the most optimal execution plan
Now a day mostly people are doing their daily routine digitally, because current era is based on information and communication technology. But security is one of the most important and challenging issues in this technological world. As per the literature analysis there is a demand for a encryption which should be strong and efficient. Cryptography is a private secure communication in the public world. Cryptography is a technique of protecting secure information from hacking and cracking by unauthorized individuals and converting it into unintelligible form. It provides authentication, identification to user data, confidentiality and also provides security and privacy to the data stored. It is an emerging technology in the area of network security. There is a broad range of cryptographic algorithms that are used for securing networks and presently continuous researches on the new cryptographic algorithms are going on for evolving more advanced techniques for secures communication. The main objective of this paper is to study the basic terms used in
cryptography, its purpose and to compare the encryption techniques used in cryptography.
SDN has changed the way of thinking about networks. SDN networks are flexible, scalable and easily manageable. Application that runs on the management plane actually utilize the network efficiency, So application developed should be capable of handling the controllers functionality. Each of the application that runs should be free from viruses, so that it does not affect the controller. Also we need to increase the level of security in all layers of the SDN architecture. SDN is growing faster and faster and it has reached the platform where we can also apply other fields concepts. Now SDN researcher are looking for the overcome the existing drawback. So that it can even support heterogeneous networks in a very smooth and flexible way.
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